Web Content Curation

What is Content Curation?

Content Curation basically means that – out of all the content you find on the social web – you pass on the most valuable stuff to your network.

A slightly more coherent definition of someone who curates content comes from marketing expert Rohit Bhargava:
A Content Curator is someone who continually finds, groups, organizes and shares the best and most relevant content on a specific issue online.

Content Curation Primer | Beth’s Blog

Content curation is not about collecting links or being an information pack rat, it is more about putting them into a context with organization, annotation, and presentation.     Content curators provide a customized, vetted selection of the best and most relevant  resources on a very specific topic or theme.

The Three S’s of Content Curation:  Seek, Sense, Share
Content curation is a three-part process:  Seek, Sense, and Share.    Finding the information or “seeking”  is only one third of the task as Mari Smith points out in this video about why curation is important and some tools  for doing it.     

30+ Cool Content Curation Tools for Personal & Professional Use

[...]  a look at over 30 content curation tools (mostly free, but some paid/professional tools as well) that will help you cut through the clutter of your information stream to find the gems. [...]

Curation tools and Desktop Clippers / Browser Extensions in Judy O'Connell (heyjude)

Curate, create and conquer: Journalism 2.0 startups to watch

From aggregators that tailor content exactly to their readers, to citizen-powered news outfits, here are some of the startups changing the face of journalism in 2012.

The content curators


Ones to watch: Zite, Pulse, flipboard.com, Skygrid, News.me, techmeme.com, Storify, Paper.li, scoop.it, Percolate

The content creators


Ones to watch: Digital Journal, PandoDaily, ThePhenomlist, The Bay Citizen, Allvoices, California Watch, Patch, Spot.us, The Verge, Propublica, Examiner


Xerox Mobile Scanner

The Xerox Mobile Scanner is the first battery-powered scanner that uses Wi-Fi to wirelessly transmit JPG images and multipage PDF files from the scanner to computers, mobile phones, tablets, and online services. Using a free mobile app, the device is able to communicate wirelessly to a PC, Android device, Mac, iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, or the Cloud.

Xerox Mobile Scanner

  • Scan to PC, Mac, Android phones and tablets, iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and the cloud
  • Create JPGs or multi-page PDFs
  • Rechargable battery lasts for over 300 scanned pages

Xerox Debuts Mobile Scanner that Sends Files to Your Phone

"The Mobile Scanner provides a quick, convenient way to scan and share documents when you’re on the go," said John Capurso, vice president of marketing at Visioneer, a Xerox licensing partner. "Untethering the scanner and adding Wi-Fi reflects Xerox’s drive to make life easier for the mobile worker."
Of course, the portability of this device means you're not going to be able to use it for anything particularly large -- the device is only capable of scanning pages 8.5-inches or smaller in width. Still, we imagine it could come in handy for the average Lincoln lawyer or traveling business person. The only downside is the price. At $250, it's pretty expensive for a peripheral. If you can't live without one, though, you can get it now through the usual online and retail channels.


Invisibility Cloak Breakthrough: Scientists Cloak 3-D Objects

Scientists create first free-standing 3D cloak

Researchers in the US have, for the first time, cloaked a three-dimensional object standing in free space, bringing the much-talked-about invisibility cloak one step closer to reality.

Published today, 26 January, in the Institute of Physics and German Physical Society’s New Journal of Physics, the researchers used a method known as “plasmonic cloaking” to hide an 18-centimetre cylindrical tube from microwaves.

Invisibility's Next Frontier: Scientists Cloak 3-D Objects | Danger Room | Wired.com

Sure, researchers have already made marked strides toward making objects unseeable. But much of the work was more like mimicry: Meta-materials that bent light around an object to conceal it, but only worked in two dimensions. Or a device that played tricks on the eye, by harnessing the mirage effect to make objects behind it “disappear.”

Now, a team of researchers have taken an incredible leap forward. They’ve successfully made a 3-D object disappear.

Metamaterial cloaking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Metamaterial cloaking is the scientific application of metamaterials in order to achieve invisibility-cloaking. This is accomplished by manipulating the paths traversed by light through a novel optical material. Metamaterials direct and control the propagation and transmission of specified parts of the light spectrum and demonstrate the potential to render an object seemingly invisible. Metamaterial cloaking, based on transformation optics, describes the process of shielding something from view by controlling electromagnetic radiation. Objects in the defined location are still present, but incident waves are guided around them without being affected by the object itself.[1][2][3][4][5]

Scientists make 'invisibility cloak' breakthrough - Telegraph

Those hoping for a Harry Potter-style touch of wizardry will be disappointed however. To the human eye, which can only perceive light in higher frequencies, there would have been no invisibility.
But, say the researchers, the experiment is important proof of a principle that so-called plasmonic meta-materials can achieve a cloaking effect.
A warplane cloaked with such materials could achieve "super-stealth" status by becoming invisible in all directions to radar microwaves, said co-lead investigator Andrea Alu.

Researchers cloak free-standing 3D object using plasmonic metamaterials

To cloak an 18 cm (7 in) long, 2.5 cm (0.9 in) diameter cylindrical tube from microwaves, the team shelled it in a plasmonic metamaterial. The team says the cloak hid the 3D object for all angles of incidence and observation. They tested it by directing microwaves towards the cloaked cylinder and mapping the resulting scattering both around the object and in the far-field. The cloak worked best when the microwaves were at a frequency of 3.1 GHz, reducing the scattering of polarized microwaves by more than 9 dB for a 60-degree range of angles.
But the team says demonstrating the cloaking on a 3D object using visible light is their key challenge.
"In principle, this technique could be used to cloak light; in fact, some plasmonic materials are naturally available at optical frequencies. However, the size of the objects that can be efficiently cloaked with this method scales with the wavelength of operation, so when applied to optical frequencies we may be able to efficiently stop the scattering of micrometre-sized objects," said Professor Al├╣.


Samsung Galaxy Tab 7.7 The First Super AMOLED Plus Tablet

Samsung Galaxy Tab 7.7 preview: first SUPER AMOLED Plus tablet | Northern Voices Online: NVO News Blog

Samsung Galaxy Tab 7.7 is going to be the first super AMOLED Plus tablet being launched in the market


The new tablet is to become the world’s first tablet with the best quality display, which has been the attraction of smartphones for a while. The display features a resolution of 1280 x 800 pixels with 197 pixels per inch density (ppi). It is an Android Honeycomb tablet with TouchWiz UX user interface, 1.4GHz dual core processor, 1GB of RAM and various on-device memory options like 16GB, 32GB and 64GB. Read on to know more about the imminent tablet from Samsung.

Super AMOLED - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Super Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode or Super AMOLED is a display technology (variant from AMOLED) mainly for use in mobile devices such as mobile phones (see the list below for examples). One of the main differences from other display technologies is that the layer that detects touch is integrated into the screen rather than being overlaid on top.

Compared with the first-generation AMOLED, some of the Super AMOLED advantages are brighter screens, less sunlight reflection and reduced power consumption.[1][2]

Super AMOLED Plus

Super AMOLED Plus, first introduced with the Samsung Galaxy S II and Samsung Droid Charge smartphones, is a further development where the PenTile RGBG pixel matrix (2 subpixels) is replaced with Samsung's "Real Stripe" (3 subpixels) RGB RGB subpixel arrangement. This goes from eight to twelve subpixels per group, resulting in finer details. The screen technology is also brighter, thinner with AMOLED Plus displays being 18% more energy efficient than the old Super AMOLED displays.[3]


Mercedes-Benz DICE Dynamic & Intuitive Control Experience

Digital Premium through Augmented Reality

With the DICE (Dynamic & Intuitive Control Experience) sculpture, at the CES Mercedes-Benz provides a vision of the interactive, intuitive and simultaneously safe operating experience in premium automobiles of the future. DICE impressively demonstrates how the vehicle becomes an intelligent mobility partner through bidirectional interaction.

"The intelligent car communicates not only with the driver, but also with other transportation modes and its entire environment in order to be able to assess all relevant information for a trip and make practical use of it immediately," says Zetsche.

Mercedes-Benz Unveils Futuristic Dashboard Controlled By Hand Gestures @PSFK

Damon Lavrinc from Auto Blog tested DICE and claims that although it’s an innovative solution, “it’s not without its issues.” Lavrinc pointed out that the system the proximity sensors can’t yet distinguish between a gesture or if you just have your hand out. A Mercedes executive stated that we won’t be seeing gesture-based dashboard in Mercedes vehicles any time soon as a production version won’t be released for another 20 years.

Watch the video below to see Lavrinc testing out the Mercedes DICE system.

Mercedes-Benz DICE concept shows the future of augmented reality in cars

The complete windshield becomes a brilliant head-up display; the dashboard, a display band. Digital information about the actual vehicle surroundings, points of interest, friends, pedestrians and other vehicles is presented there and a natural interaction by means of gestures is made possible.

For this Mercedes-Benz uses a combination of Augmented Reality and natural gesture control to realize a completely new, exciting form of communication between people and their environment.

The interactive logic of the novel control concept is very imitative of intuitive human behavior. Along with functional aspects it now also involves emotional and social aspects and so creates a unique operating and driving experience.

To the left of the steering wheel on the flat panel dashboard was a simulated compass that we could manipulate with hand gestures, similar to Microsoft’s Kinect system. To right of the steering wheel, on the passenger side dashboard, was a secondary panel with buttons label Social, Media and Places. Waving our hands in front of each of the tabs would highlight them, while pushing our hands forward allowed us to select them.

As our virtual vehicle navigated the streets of San Francisco, DICE would pick up on various landmarks and display selectable points of interest icons on the windshield. Waving our hands in front of the icons brought up information on their corresponding points of interest that we could choose to save to our dashboard’s Places section.


IBM's Atomic-Scale Magnetic Memory

Smallest Ever Computer Memory, Using 12 Atoms, Developed By IBM

By developing a data storage device composed of just 12 iron atoms, IBM researchers may have signalled the beginning of the end for traditional computer memory. In a paper published January 13 in Science, Andreas Heinrich and his team demonstrated the smallest ever information storage system, an impressive display in an industry where bits normally take up over half a billion atoms.


The atoms, arranged in a 6x2 pattern, were positioned one at a time with the tip of a powerful scanning tunneling microscope; they use a special kind of magnetism, called antiferromagnetism. PhysOrg explains,
Different from ferromagnetism, which is used in conventional hard drives, the spins of neighboring atoms within antiferromagnetic material are oppositely aligned, rendering the material magnetically neutral on a bulk level. This means that antiferromagnetic atom rows can be spaced much more closely without magnetically interfering with each other. Thus, the scientist managed to pack bits only one nanometer apart.

Smaller Magnetic Materials Push Boundaries of Nanotechnology - NYTimes.com

Although the research took place at a temperature near absolute zero, the scientists wrote that the same experiment could be done at room temperature with as few as 150 atoms.

As part of its demonstration of the antiferromagnetic storage effect, the researchers created a computer byte, or character, out of an individually placed array of 96 atoms. They then used the array to encode the I.B.M. motto “Think” by repeatedly programming the memory block to store representations of its five letters.
An atomically assembled array of 96 iron atoms containing one byte of magnetic information in antiferromagnetic states.

IBM News room - 2012-01-12 IBM Research Determines Atomic Limits of Magnetic Memory - United States

The scientists at IBM Research used a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to atomically engineer a grouping of twelve antiferromagnetically coupled atoms that stored a bit of data for hours at low temperatures. Taking advantage of their inherent alternating magnetic spin directions, they demonstrated the ability to pack adjacent magnetic bits much closer together than was previously possible. This greatly increased the magnetic storage density without disrupting the state of neighboring bits.

Writing and reading a magnetic byte: this image shows a magnetic byte imaged 5 times in different magnetic states to store the ASCII code for each letter of the word THINK, a corporate mantra used by IBM since 1914. The team achieved this using 96 iron atoms − one bit was stored by 12 atoms and there are eight bits in each byte.

IBM - Atomic-scale magnetic memory - United States

The challenge of Moore's Law
We expect our hard drives to store more and cost less every few years. But by current conventions the technology industry is reaching the physical limits of its faithful adherence to Moore's Law, which says that the number of transistors on a microchip will approximately double every two years.
To continue to advance, new methods were needed to pack more data storage and computing capabilities into smaller spaces.


Lumus Wearable Display

Walk And Watch HD Movies With Lumus’ See-Through Video Glasses

Video eyewear hasn’t been the most practical — or even quality — technology to emerge over the past 10 years, but it still carries an essence of the future with it. And while they’re not any more practical, Lumus Technologies’ 720p DK-32 see-through video eyewear struck enough of a balance between picture quality, wearability and that future factor for my enjoyment.

Lumus see-through wearable display hands-on at CES 2012 - YouTube

Lumus was showing off two different types of wearable displays, the development kit -- or DK-32 shown above -- and the PD-18-4 a monocular version using the same technology. Driven by Lumus' patented Light-guide Optical Element, a micro-display pod, and the Optical Engine which projects light into the lens -- where it is reflected back to the user's eye via reflectors embedded in the lens -- the Lumus' DK-32 delivers a bright 720p 3D-capable display that only weighs 27 grams.

Lumus - The Lumus Solution

See-through and large screen effect
Unlimited screen size is one of the most innovate and coolest features of Lumus' see-through capability, enabling users to literally experience the world's largest screen. While display brightness and contrast are optimized to block out ambient background when watching video content, the Field of View surrounding the active image remains clear, with the image appearing as though it is being projected onto whatever background is visible. For example, when viewing an image with a wall in front of the wearer, the image appears as if it is a large screen projected on that wall. When outside and looking at the view several blocks away, the image appears as if it is hundreds of feet wide. This phenomenon is explained by the unlimited distance perception enabled by the see-through capability - the farther the distance observed around the active image, the larger the image appears.

Lumus - Advantages

  • Unobtrusive, natural look and feel of regular eyeglasses, which can be worn all day, even when screen is off
  • Huge expandable screen with image appearing even larger over distance
  • Situational awareness enabling watching on the go while seeing what's going on around you
  • Hands-free flow of critical data, keeping you constantly connected no matter what you are doing
  • Personal and private screen allowing discreet viewing of video and data anywhere
  • Augmented reality content overlaid on what you see, enabling revolutionary applications
  • Stereoscopic image enabling mind-blowing 3D video and gaming
  • No fatigue or dizziness because of open peripheral vision and proprietary alignment methods and procedures


Sensics SmartGoggles

Headset Sensics Smart Goggles on Android | iPedia - Latest Technology News, iPhone, Apple, Gadgets

Android operating system has penetrated almost all electronics, from in-vehicle infotainment systems, and ending wristwatch. However, producers that was not enough and they decided to find a new habitat popular platform: SmartGoggles.

The company Sensics, speaking developer SmartGoggles, released a video teaser of the future gadget, which is a helmet with a display in front of the user’s eyes. As noted above, Sensics SmartGoggles runs on an operating system Android, which version is not specified.


Sensics Introduces SmartGoggles™: a New 3d, 360-Degree Gaming and Entertainment Platform

Will Unveil Intelligent, Interactive 3D Goggles at CES

COLUMBIA, MD (12/22/11) – Maryland-based Sensics plans to unveil SmartGoggles™, a new 3D, 360-degree gaming and entertainment platform at the 2012 International Consumer Electronics Show.
Sensics’ SmartGoggles™ technology powers new types of gaming and entertainment goggles that are mobile and feature real-time, 360-degree tracking of the hands from the user’s perspective, adding intelligence, natural interaction, and true portability to goggle designs.
Source: Sensics

Technology | Sensics SmartGoggles

What’s inside?

SmartGoggles are a unique architecture for smarter, better virtual reality goggles. Delivered as a ‘system on a module’, SmartGoggles technology provides consumer electronics companies with an engine for building goggles that customers will love to use.
SmartGoggles typically include the following components:
  • A powerful application processor, typically running Android or Windows Embedded, allowing you to download, run and store applications locally – on the goggles – and take them with you.
  • A unique system for first-person hand tracking, providing natural interaction with the applications. By using hand tracking data – provided through the libSensics™ software library, application developers can use the hands to interact with 3D content, to play a 360 degree 3D game and to provide on-board user interface.
  • A virtual reality engine that provides almost everything you need to build goggles: display drivers, predictive head tracking, video processing, communications and more.
Ready to dive deeper into the architecture of SmartGoggles? Click here for a detailed block diagram.


Lit Motors' C-1 Gyroscopically Stabilized Electric Motorcycle

The "C-1" (Codename) "Rolling Smart Phone" | Lit Motors, Inc.

Introducing the C-1, the world's first gyroscopically stabilized rolling smart phone. This vehicle combines the efficiency and freedom of a motorcycle with the safety and convenience of a car. Offering the alternated to alternatives on an exciting and safe platform, the C-1 transforms your daily commute into something to look forward to.

The vehicle

So far, Kim and his team have developed an operating model of the C-1's flywheel-based stabilization system, along with a full-scale fiberglass mock-up of the vehicle itself. They are now working on a hand-built steel uni-bodied working prototype, which should reportedly be complete within about three months. Plans call for an initial run of production vehicles to be available at a price of about US$24,000 by late 2013, with that price going down to $16,000 once full production gets under way in 2014.

Keeping connected

As with many existing newer cars, the vehicle will also utilize various connectivity protocols to stay in contact with the internet. This will allow its driver to be continuously aware of factors such as traffic, construction, and adverse weather conditions - where applicable, alternate routes will be suggested.

This vehicle also employs KERS Kinetic Energy Recovery System in addition to both an aerodynamic shape and a low rolling resistance.

With KERS, whenever you use your brakes, that kinetic energy will be stored and used to assist in spinning up the flywheels. The flywheels sit near the bottom of the vehicle and both provide stability for the vehicle and deliver power to the drivetrain when you’re accelerating. Quite efficient! The C-1′s flywheel stabilization system allows you to balance in essentially any situation, as shown quite clearly in this lovely video:


3D Cameras for Cellphones with CoDAC: Compressive Depth Acquisition

Depth map - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In 3D computer graphics a depth map is an image or image channel that contains information relating to the distance of the surfaces of scene objects from a viewpoint.

Depth Map: Nearer is darker

3-D cameras for cellphones - MIT News Office

Clever math could enable a high-quality 3-D camera so simple, cheap and power-efficient that it could be incorporated into handheld devices.
The MIT researchers’ system [...] uses only a single light detector — a one-pixel camera. But by using some clever mathematical tricks, it can get away with firing the laser a limited number of times.
Indeed, the algorithm lets the researchers get away with relatively crude hardware. Their system measures the time of flight of photons using a cheap photodetector and an ordinary analog-to-digital converter — an off-the-shelf component already found in all cellphones. The sensor takes about 0.7 nanoseconds to register a change to its input.

STIR CoDAC Project Page

CoDAC: Compressive Depth Acquisition Camera
CoDAC is a new time-of-flight based range measurement system for acquiring depth maps of piecewise-planar scenes with high spatial resolution using a single, omnidirectional, time-resolved photodetector and no scanning components. [...]
Our technique, CoDAC, is based on the TOF distance measurement principle. In contrast to a regular TOF camera, CoDAC uses a pulsed light source to illuminate a spatial light modulator. The spatial light modulator selectively illuminates the scene with a randomly-chosen checkerboard pattern by selectively blocking some of the light. All the light reflected from the scene is focused at a single, time-resolved photodetector. The photodetector produces an electrical signal, which is in turn sampled and stored. This process of illumination, integration and sampling is repeated for a small number of randomly-chosen binary patterns. Finally, the time samples collected through this acquisition are computationally processed using a parametric signal processing framework to reconstruct the scene depth map.

Kinect comes to Smart Phones?

It will be a little time before a commercial system is available - at the moment the MIT team is working on extending the method to curved surfaces - but Intel has already invested $100,000 as part of its innovation Fellowship program.
Having portable depth detectors small enough to fit in a mobile phone really would open up a whole new world of apps.


MyRobots.com: Social Network for Robots

What is MyRobots?
MyRobots.com aims to connect all robots and intelligent devices to the Internet. In doing so we augment their capabilities enabling them to be remotely monitored and controlled. We strive to make cloud robotics a reality accessible to everyone and everything.

You can think of MyRobots as a social network for robots and smart objects (i.e. Facebook for robots). In the same way humans benefit from socializing, collaborating and sharing, robots can benefit from those interactions too by sharing their sensor information giving insight on their perspective of their current state.

How does it work?
First you need a robot or a smart web-enabled object. Then, you can Sign up at MyRobots.com to connect your robots and start reaping the benefits.
Once your robot is connected, you will be able to monitor it via the web, give commands and receive alerts.

Facebook for robots helps droids get smarter

But while Facebook is often criticised for emphasising the duller aspects of human life ("Bored. When can I go to the pub?" or "I need pizza") , the exchange of seemingly mundane status updates between robots ("I am overheating and need a rest" or "I am a vacuum cleaner and I am stuck") could make them a lot smarter.

At the very least, such updates - which could come from stationary household objects as well as moving robots -  could allow humans to come to the rescue. More interestingly, by allowing robots to pool information, they could lead to much more intelligent decision-making. "Not all robots have the same sensors or the same access to information," says Asmat.

For example, a stove and a fridge signed up to the site might detect usage, while a humanoid patroller robot might notice lots of people in the house. The next day, a robot vacuum could then deduce from those updates that there was a party, and that it should clean more because the house might be dirtier - all without the intervention of a human. "These examples can be seen as science fiction at the moment but are very close to become a reality," says Asmat

Is MyRobots.com the 'Facebook for Robots?' Verdict: Maybe - IEEE Spectrum

The primary difference between MyRobots.com and a site like Facebook, Twitter, or Google Plus is that MyRobots is run by a company that wants to sell you robots: RobotShop.com. The potential issue, then, is that there could be some inherent conflict since the owner of this social network is also trying to sell you the hardware that runs on the social network, and they're already evaluating partnership options with manufacturers. In the short term, though, [...]


Quasicrystals from Outer Space

Bizarre Crystal Hitched Ride on Meteorite | Chondrites & Meteorite Collisions | Space Rocks & Early Solar System | LiveScience

A rock sample containing quasicrystals unearthed in the Koryak Mountains in Russia.
CREDIT: Paul Steinhardt, Princeton University

A rock fragment containing a previously unidentified natural quasicrystal may be the remnant of a  meteorite that originated in the early solar system more than 4.5 billion years ago before Earth even existed.

Until now, researchers had assumed such quasicrystals, whose atoms are arranged in a quasi-regular pattern rather than the regular arrangement of atoms inside a crystal, were not feasible in nature. In fact, until now the only known quasicrystals were synthetic, formed in a laboratory under carefully controlled conditions. (This year's Nobel Prize in chemistry honored Dan Shechtman for his 1982 discovery of quasicrystals, which at the time were thought to break the laws of nature.)

The quasicrystal from outer space : Nature News & Comment

The only known natural example of the material that won last year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry comes from an ancient meteorite.
Alien origins

In the latest study, Bindi joined with Steinhardt and other US scientists to analyse the rock. The ratios of isotopes of oxygen in silicate and oxide minerals around the quasicrystal grain are typical of minerals found in meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites, the team reports1. This indicates that the rock is of extraterrestrial origin and very old: virtually all chondrites formed at the birth of the Solar System. It is likely, but not certain, that the quasicrystal grain within the meteorite is of roughly the same age. It was found entwined with a silica mineral that forms only at high pressures and temperatures — such as might be created by a collision with the chondrite body.

What are Quasicrystals, and What Makes Them Nobel-Worthy? | The Rundown News Blog | PBS NewsHour | PBS

The 2011 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded on Wednesday to an Israeli scientist named Dan Shechtman who discovered a type of crystal so strange and unusual that it upset the prevailing views on the atomic structure of matter, leading to a paradigm shift in chemistry.

But why? What's so special about quasicrystals?


Pat Theil, a senior scientist at the U.S. Energy Department's Ames Laboratory and a professor of materials science at Iowa State University, uses the analogy of tiling a bathroom floor. Only tiles of certain shapes fit together snugly without creating unsightly holes.

"If you want to cover your bathroom floor, your tiles can be rectangles or triangles or squares or hexagons," Thiel said. "Any other simple shape won't work, because it will leave a gap. In a quasicrystal, imagine atoms are at the points of the objects you're using. What Danny discovered is that pentagonal symmetry works."

Introduction to Quasicrystals

1. What Are Quasicrystals ? 
2. The Concept of Higher Dimensional Space 
3. What Do We Need Tilings For ? 
4. Types of Quasicrystals 
5. Diffraction pattern symmetries
6. Systems with Quasicrystals 
7. Experimental Techniques 
8. Structure Solution Techniques 
9. Morphology 
10. IMS versus QC