Clipped from: YouTube - Black Holes and Worm Holes

# Black Holes and Worm Holes

Clipped from: wormhole

**wormhole**

A hypothetical "tunnel" connecting two different points in spacetime in such a way that a trip through the wormhole could take much less time than a journey between the same starting and ending points in normal space. The ends of a wormhole could, in theory, be

*intra-universe*(i.e. both exist in the same universe) or

*inter-universe*(exist in different universes, and thus serve as a connecting passage between the two).

[...]

The theory of wormholes goes back to 1916, shortly after Einstein published his general theory, when Ludwig Flamm, an obscure Austrian physicist, looked at the simplest possible solution of Einstein's field equations, known as the Schwarzschild solution (or Schwarzschild metric). This describes the gravitational field around a spherically-symmetric non-rotating mass. If the mass is sufficiently compact, the solution describes a particular form of the phenomenon now called a black hole – the Schwarzschild black hole. Flamm realized that Einstein's equations allowed a second solution, now known as a white hole, and that the two solutions, describing two different regions of (flat) spacetime were connected (mathematically) by a spacetime conduit.

^{1}Because the theory has nothing to say about where these regions of spacetime might be in the real world, the black hole "entrance" and white hole "exit" could be in different parts of the same universe or in different universes.

## Our universe at home within a larger universe? So suggests wormhole research

**(PhysOrg.com) -- Could our universe be located within the interior of a wormhole which itself is part of a black hole that lies within a much larger universe?**

Such a scenario in which the universe is born from inside a wormhole (also called an Einstein-Rosen Bridge) is suggested in a paper from Indiana University theoretical physicist Nikodem Poplawski in

*Physics Letters B*. The final version of the paper was available online March 29 and will be published in the print edition April 12.

Poplawski takes advantage of the Euclidean-based coordinate system called isotropic coordinates to describe the gravitational field of a black hole and to model the radial geodesic motion of a massive particle into a black hole.

*Einstein-Rosen bridges like the one visualized above have never been observed in nature, but they provide theoretical physicists and cosmologists with solutions in general relativity by combining models of black holes and white holes.*

## Our universe at home within a larger universe? So suggests IU theoretical physicist's wormhole research

*IU theoretical physicist Nikodem Poplawski in research published in "Physics Letters B" uses Euclidean-based mathematical modeling to suggest that all black holes may have wormholes inside which exist universes created at the same time as the black holes.*

In studying the radial motion through the event horizon (a black hole's boundary) of two different types of black holes -- Schwarzschild and Einstein-Rosen, both of which are mathematically legitimate solutions of general relativity -- Poplawski admits that only experiment or observation can reveal the motion of a particle falling into an actual black hole. But he also notes that since observers can only see the outside of the black hole, the interior cannot be observed unless an observer enters or resides within.

"This condition would be satisfied if our universe were the interior of a black hole existing in a bigger universe," he said. "Because Einstein's general theory of relativity does not choose a time orientation, if a black hole can form from the gravitational collapse of matter through an event horizon in the future then the reverse process is also possible. Such a process would describe an exploding white hole: matter emerging from an event horizon in the past, like the expanding universe."

A white hole is connected to a black hole by an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) and is hypothetically the time reversal of a black hole. Poplawski's paper suggests that all astrophysical black holes, not just Schwarzschild and Einstein-Rosen black holes, may have Einstein-Rosen bridges, each with a new universe inside that formed simultaneously with the black hole.

**Sources:**

- YouTube - Black Holes and Worm Holes
- wormhole
- Our universe at home within a larger universe? So suggests wormhole research
- Our universe at home within a larger universe? So suggests IU theoretical physicist's wormhole research: IU News Room: Indiana University

**Related:**

- Is Our Universe Inside Another Larger Universe? | Universe Today
- Our universe at home within a larger universe? So suggests physicist's wormhole research
- Our universe at home within a larger universe? So suggests physicist's wormhole research
- Did a Theoretical Physicist Already Predict the End of Lost? | Popular Science
- Wormhole - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Department of Physics, Indiana University: Nikodem Poplawski
- [0902.1994] Radial motion into the Einstein-Rosen bridge
- 0902.1994v2.pdf - Powered by Google Docs